Sound Segmentation

Segmenting refers to the act of isolating the sounds in a spoken word by separately pronouncing each one is order. Segmenting is one of the most difficult simple phonemic tasks for children to perform.

Phoneme Identification With Sound-It-Out Chips


Give each student three chips. Make the chips that students use here similar to the letter card chips they will use later but without printed letters. In this way they make the chip-sound connection now and the letter-sound connection more easily later. Select a picture card for a three-phoneme word such as cat and put it where the group can see it. We’re going to use these chips to stand for each sound in this word: cat. I want you to place one chip in front of you as you say each sound in the word. My turn first: caaat. Place a chip each time you say a sound until you have three chips in a row.

Now you do the same: say each sound in cat and put one chip down for each sound. Ready? Students: caaat. If a student has trouble (eg, putting chips down out of step with the sounds), model for him and have him try again. If he still has difficulty, try leaving the three chips down and having him point to each chip as he says the sound.

That’s great. Okay, now listen carefully because in a moment I’m going to try to trick you. Point to your first chip and say, This first chip stands for the first sound in hat. What is the first sound in hat? Students: /h/. Right! /h/. The middle chip stands for the middle sound in hat. What sound is that? Students: /a/. Right! /a/. The last chip stands for the last sound in hat. What sound is that? Students: /t/. Right! /t/.

So let’s see if I can trick you. Point to the chip in front of you that stands for the /h/ sound in hat. Is it the first sound, the middle sound, or the last sound? If students have trouble say, listen for the /h/ in hat: haaat. Point to each chip as you say the word slowly. Where is the sound /h/ in haaat? Point to the chip. Correct! It’s the first sound.

Now I’ll try to trick you again. Where is the /t/ sound in hat? First, middle, or last? Again, help students who have difficulty with this. Right! /t/ is the last sound in hat: haaat.
Next, select the picture card for another three-phoneme word, say, moon. Okay, let’s try another. Pick up your chips. Now we’re going to use your chips to stand for each sound in this word: moon. Put one chip down for each sound in moon and say the word slowly as you put chips down. Ready? Students: mmmooonnn. Perfect. Now let’s see if I can trick you. Point to the chip that stands for the /oo/ sound in moon. Provide further support and modeling as needed.

Continue with other three-phoneme words. Watch for struggling students and give them an individual turn.

Once students have mastered three-phoneme words, give them four and then five chips and practice with longer words such as elbow (four phonemes: e-l-b-ow) and zebra (five phonemes: z-e-b-r-a).

This idea is from the book "Road to the Code". It is a game called "say it and move it". The students learn the segmentation by taking turns placing counters in each box while saying each sound in a word. Words should be selected from familiar text to ensure a whole-to-part sequence of instruction and to provide the children with contextual cues that link word segmentation to everyday classroom lessons.

 

Teaching Sound Isolation

Children identify the beginning, middle, and ending sounds in words. For example, "What is the beginning sound in nose?" "What is the ending sound in pig? "What is the sound you hear in the middle of cat?"

Activities
A Song That Teaches Sound Isolation is Old Mac Donald Had a Farm
In this song, children are asked to tell what sounds they hear at the beginning, middle, or end of words.
You may use the same sound for each position (beginning, middle, and end) as you begin to work with a new sound and then mix them up as children learn more sounds.

What's the sound that starts these words: turtle, time, and teeth?
(Wait for a response from the children - /t/.)
/t/ is the sound that starts these words: turtle, time, and teeth.
With a /t/, /t/, here and a /t/, /t/, there,
Here a /t/, there a /t/, everywhere a /t/, /t/.
/t/ is the sound that starts these words: turtle, time, and teeth.


What is the sound in the middle of these words beet and meal and read?
(Wait for a response from the children - /ee/.)
/ee/ is the sound in the middle of these words: beet and meal and read.
With a /ee/, /ee/, here and a /ee/, /ee/, there,
Here a /ee/, there a /ee/, everywhere a /ee/, /ee/.
/ee/ is the sound in the middle of these words: beet and meal and read.


What's the sound at the end of these words: bed and seed and mad?
(Wait for a response from the children - /d/.)
/d/ is the sound at the end of these words: bed and seed and mad.
With a /d/, /d/, here and a /d/, /d/, there,
Here a /d/, there a /d/, everywhere a /d/, /d/.
/d/ is the sound at the end of these words: bed and seed and mad.


Teaching Phonemic Blending - "I Say It Slowly, You Say It Fast" Game
Teacher explains that she will say the sounds in a word slowly.
Children take turns saying it fast.
Example: Teacher says, "/k/-/a/-/t/ child says, "cat."
Example: Teacher says, "cow - boy" child says, "cowboy."

http://teams.lacoe.edu/DOCUMENTATION/classrooms/patti/k-1/activities/isolation.html

 

 

 

Teaching Sound Substitution

Children identify the beginning, middle, and ending sounds in words. For example, "What is the ending sound in pig?" What sound do you hear in the middle of cat?"

Activities:


Tricky Rhyming Riddles Using Onset and Rime

Ask children riddles that require them to manipulate sounds in their heads.
The easiest are the ones that ask for endings.
The next easiest are the ones that ask for a single consonant substitution at the beginning.
The most difficult are the ones that ask for a consonant blend or digraph at the beginning.
What rhymes with pig and starts with /d/? dig
What rhymes with book and starts with /c/? cook
What rhymes with sing and starts with /r/? dig
What rhymes with dog and starts with /fr/? frog


Songs that Teach Sound Substitution


Choose a song your students all know and substitute a consonant sound for the beginning of each word in the song.
One song that works well is from "I've Been Working on the Railroad: (Yopp, 1992)
" Fee-Fi-Fiddle-ee-I-Oh"
" Bee-Bi-Biddle-ee-I-Oh"
" Dee-Di-Diddle-ee-I-Oh"
" Hee-Hi-Hiddle-ee-I-Oh"


Try Old Mac Donald Had a Farm making substitutions when singing about each new animal. (Yopp, 1992)
For a cow, sing, "kee-high,kee-kigh, koh!"
For a sheep, sing, "shee-shigh, shee-shigh, shoh!"

http://teams.lacoe.edu/DOCUMENTATION/classrooms/patti/k-1/activities/onsets.html

 

 

Sound Train

Objectives: initial and final consonant sounds

Place a series of picture flashcards on the floor. Randomly choose one flashcard to be the engine. Review the word, identifying its initial sound and final sound. Choose a student to select the next card in the train. The next card must begin with the sound the first card ends with. (Example: cat - train - nurse - stamp - pig - gum - mother - etc.) See how long of a train you can make.

Older students may create trains using written words. Simply divide students into teams, and have the first student on each team think of a word and write it on the board. The next student races up and adds a word that begins with the sound (not letter!) the previous word ended with. The team that creates the longest word train wins.

 

 

Alphabet Taboo

Objectives: vocabulary development; listening comprehension; letter-sound association
Gather a stack of twenty-six 4 x 6 or larger index cards, and write a different letter of the alphabet in the upper right hand corner of each.On each card, draw or paste drawings of three to five pictures which begin with that sound.

Laminate cards and store in box.

For quick review of sounds and vocabulary, pull a card from the file and begin describing the pictures without naming them. After students guess each object, ask them to name the initial sound. You may also allow students to describe objects pictured on cards.


 

Rubber Band Stretch
Teacher models with a large rubber band how to stretch out a word as the word is said. /mmmmmmmm-/aaaaaaaaaaaa-/nnnnnnnnn/
Teacher models with stretched out band how to bring rubber band back to original length and says the word fast: /man/.
Children pretend to stretch rubber bands as they say the sounds in different words.

 

Stretchy Names
Children and teacher clap and say a verse for each child in class:
CHRISTOPHER, CHRISTOPHER, HOW DO YOU DO? WHO'S THAT FRIEND RIGHT NEXT TO YOU?
Children and teacher say the next child's name very slowly, stretching palms far apart as the word is stretched; RRRR-eeeee-bbbb-eee-ckckckck-aaa.
Clap once quickly and say name fast: "Rebecca."

Sound Boxes
After children can do "rubber band stretch," teacher shows students how to make sound boxes on their papers or lap boards.
They learn to say a word, stretching it out, and then slide a marker into each box as they hear each sound or phoneme.

 

A Song to Teach Phonemic Segmentation
Listen, listen to my word,
Then tell me all the sound you heard: race
/r/ is one sound
/a/ is two,
/s/ is last in race it's true.
Thanks for listening to my word
And telling all the sounds you heard!

http://teams.lacoe.edu/DOCUMENTATION/classrooms/patti/k-1/activities/segment.html


 

Missing Letter Game- PBS

Ending Sound Game

PBS Cookie Monster Beginning Sound Game